Quels sont les effets et les causes de la peur chez les êtres sensibles, qui tous, à des degrés divers, semblent capables de ressentir cette émotion protectrice ? Ce traité répond à cette question et analyse les signes de la peur et les phénomènes physiques qui l'accompagnent.
Most old towns are like palimpsests, parchments which have been scrawled over again and again by their successive owners. Oxford, though not one of the most ancient of English cities, shows, more legibly than the rest, the handwriting, as it were, of many generations. The convenient site among the interlacing waters of the Isis and the Cherwell has commended itself to men in one age after another. Each generation has used it for its own purpose: for war, for trade, for learning, for religion; and war, trade, religion, and learning have left on Oxford their peculiar marks.
"When the Europeans came to this continent at the end of the fifteenth century they found it already inhabited by races of men very different from themselves. These people, whom they took to calling 'Indians,' were spread out, though very thinly, from one end of the continent to the other. Who were these nations, and how was their presence to be accounted for? To the first discoverers of America, or rather to the discoverers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (Columbus and his successors), the origin of the Indians presented no difficulty. To them America was supposed to be simply an outlying part of Eastern Asia, which had been known by repute and by tradition for centuries past. Finding, therefore, the tropical islands of the Caribbean sea with a climate and plants and animals such as they imagined those of Asia and the Indian ocean to be, and inhabited by men of dusky colour and strange speech, they naturally thought the place to be part of Asia, or the Indies. The name 'Indians,' given to the aborigines of North America, records for us this historical misunderstanding. But a new view became necessary after Balboa had crossed the isthmus of Panama and looked out upon the endless waters of the Pacific, and after Magellan and his Spanish comrades had sailed round the foot of the continent, and then pressed on across the Pacific to the real Indies. It was now clear that America was a different region from Asia." - The Antiquity of Man in North America - The Descendants of Paleolithic Man in American - Traces of a Pre-Indian People - Man in America ...
Machiavelli was an italian philosopher, humanist and writer, considered as the founder of the modern political science. The term Machiavellianism comes from his work describing personalities characterized by a duplicitous interpersonal style, a cynical disregard for morality and a focus on self-interest and personal gain.
The great event of the history of the world is the revolution by which the noblest portions of humanity have passed from the ancient religions, comprised under the vague name of Paganism, to a religion founded on Jesus Christ. But many people have a doubt about the existence of Jesus or ignore how Jesus life still influences the world. This book gathered works analyzing the Place of Jesus in the history of the world; the Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus; and the Essential character of the work of Jesus.
"Genesis is the history of the fallen image of God, named mortal man. This deflection of being, rightly viewed, serves to suggest the proper reflection of God and spiritual actuality of man, as given in the first chapter of Genesis. The sun is a figure of Soul outside the body, giving Life and Intelligence to mortal men, the poor representatives of the immortals. When the crude forms of human thought take on higher symbols and significations, my scientific theory of the universe and man will be understood, and hailed with head and heart..."
The San Francisco earthquake of 1906, was one of several large earthquakes recorded. What were the causes and the impacts on the region? "Whatever the earthquake danger may be, it is a thing to be dealt with on the ground by skillful engineering, not avoided by flight: and the proper basis for all protective measures is the fullest possible information as to the extent and character of the danger..."
The wide-spread ignorance of the various means employed by the federal government to promote the well-being of its citizens is nowhere better exemplified than in the common ignorance of the functions and important work of the Public Health Service. This ignorance is the more lamentable inasmuch as the Public Health Service is the sole national agency operating to combat and prevent epidemic diseases among human beings, and to improve public sanitation and hygiene, in the United States. Alfred C. Reed was public health officer and medical educator.
"The immigrations, in America as in Europe, have been intermittent, and separated sometimes by centuries. America has been peopled as if by a great human river, which, rising in Asia, has traversed the continent from north to south, receiving along its course a few small tributaries. This river resembles the torrent streams of which we have examples in France. Usually, and occasionally for years at a time, their bed is nearly dry. Then some great storm comes, and a liquid avalanche descends from the mountains where their sources lie, covers and ravages the plain, turning over the ancient alluviums, stirring up and mixing the old and new materials, and carrying farther each time the débris it has torn up on its passage. Like this has been the career of our ethnological river. Its floods have, besides, often been diverted to the right or left, and it has opened new derivations. It has also had its eddies. But its general direction has not changed, and we can trace it down to the present..."
History of German Life. "In Germany, perhaps more than in any other country, it is among the peasantry that we must look for the historical type of the national physique. In the towns this type has become so modified to express the personality of the individual that even "family likeness" is often but faintly marked. But the peasants may still be distinguished into groups, by their physical peculiarities. In one part of the country we find a longer-legged, in another a broader-shouldered race, which has inherited these peculiarities for centuries. ...Between many villages an historical feud, once perhaps the occasion of much bloodshed, is still kept up under the milder form of an occasional round of cudgelling and the launching of traditional nicknames. An historical feud of this kind still exists, for example, among many villages on the Rhine and more inland places in the neighborhood. ... ... Marriage is a very prudential affair, especially among the peasants who have the largest share of property. ... The girls marry young, ...
"In a fine contrasting of Europe's wealth of historic memorials with his own country's yet new civilization, Washington Irving says of the former country, "Its every stone is a chronicle." The remark is true, applied, as he meant it to be, to our older cities with their ancient edifices and defenses. But, belonging to a yet remoter past, are the remains of Roman and Celtic arts and architecture; and in the pile-dwellings of our lakes and peat-beds we have relics of the Stone and Bronze eras, the beginnings of which lie beyond the reach of even tradition."The First Traces of Man in Europe; - the age of mammoths - the age of polished stone - the age of bronze - the age of iron ...
-The Development of American Industries of Fire Fighting since Columbus- "A Peculiarity common to all nations is the fact that not until the industries of peace and the armaments of war had been well developed was attention paid to procuring safeguards against conflagrations; and when it was at last realized that means for the extinguishing of fire were necessary, so little was attempted that the results were entirely inadequate. Even in the United States, noted the world over for advanced methods of fire-fighting, the marked improvements have been so long in coming that half the men alive today can remember the time when the most marked changes were made.."
When the white man landed on these shores he found them covered with a dense forest, the home of the bear, the elk, the lynx, and the other wild animals indigenous to this country. The only human inhabitants were the red Indians, who roved the forest, "the children of the shade"-the chase their occupation, and their amusement war. From Maine to Florida the country was overrun by various tribes of these untutored savages, and for many years it was believed that the whole of North America was what it was called-the New World-and that its animals and savage men were part of the first wild stock with which it was peopled...
-Aspects of Nature in the African Sahara-"With all the wild, fitful, and forbidding Nature that belongs to the Sahara, it has also its elements of peace and good will. The cheer of a green oasis is, indeed, one of its first greetings, and long before the great flat expanse of sand is reached the traveler approaching from the north looks down upon an island of emerald verdure."
"The mere gathering of individuals into a group does not constitute them a society. A society, in the sociological sense, is formed only when, besides juxtaposition, there is cooperation. So long as members of the group do not combine their energies to achieve some common end or ends, there is little to keep them together. They are prevented from separating only when the wants of each are better satisfied by uniting his efforts with those of others than they would be if he acted alone.Cooperation, then, is at once that which cannot exist without a society, and that for which a society exists. It may be a joining of many strengths to effect something which the strength of no single man can effect; or it may be an apportioning of different activities to different persons, who severally participate in the benefits of one another's activities. The motive for acting together, originally the dominant one, may be defense against enemies; or it may be the easier obtainment of food, by the chase or otherwise; or it may be, and commonly is, both of these. In any case, however, the units pass from the state of perfect independence to the state of mutual dependence; and as fast as they do this they become united into a society rightly so called..." -Political Organization in General
-Political Forms and Forces
-Political Heads - Chiefs, Kings, etc...
-Compound Political Heads
-The Militant Type of Society
The Japanese are distinguished by a yellowish skin, straight black hair, scanty beard, almost total absence of hair on the arms, legs, and chest, broadish prominent cheek-bones, and more or less obliquely set eyes. These, with the other characteristics to be mentioned presently, are common both to the more slenderly built, oval-faced aristocracy, and to pudding-faced Gombei, the "Hodge" of Japanese Arcadia. Compared with people of European race, the average Japanese has a long body and short legs, a large skull with a tendency to prognathism (projecting jaws), a flat nose, coarse hair, scanty eye-lashes, puffy eyelids, a sallow complexion, and a low stature. The average stature of Japanese men is about the same as the average stature of European women. The women are proportionately smaller...
"The people who call themselves "agnostics" have been charged with doing so because they have not the courage to declare themselves "infidels". It has been insinuated that they have adopted a new name in order to escape the unpleasantness which attaches to their proper denomination..."
"Such is the Australian's treatment of woman a treatment so selfish, so inconsistent with the altruistic traits and impulses of romantic love sympathy, gallantry, and self-sacrificing affection, not to speak of adoration that it alone proves him incapable of so refined a sentiment. If any doubt remained, it would be removed by his utter inability to rise above the sensual sphere..."
This book presents a short and interesting history of Psychiatry.
"Among the achievements of the nineteenth century none surpass the revolution wrought in the field of psychiatry.
Going back into the very dawn of history we find scattered references to the treatment of madness, which was looked upon as a punishment by the gods or ascribed to demoniacal possession... Something more rational was attempted in Paris when by an Act of Parliament in 1660 the insane passed through two wards, especially reserved for them in Hotel Dieu, the ward St. Louise for men containing ten beds for four each and two small beds; the ward St. Martin for women containing six large beds and six small ones. Treatment here was by means of douches, cold baths, repeated bleedings, hellebore, purgatives and antispasmodics. If there was no improvement in a few weeks they were sent to the Petits Maisons, the Salpetriere or the Bicetre, where they were kept clothed in rags, confined by chains, poorly fed, bedded on rotten straw, often in cells infected with disease. As in England on holidays they were exposed to the gaze of the public, admitted for a small fee as to a menagerie..."
The California "Diggers" A History of some Primitive Californians."In the Santa Clara Valley, near the southern end of San Francisco Bay, some five miles south of Stanford University, there stands a fine old deserted abode, formerly a well-known station on the road from the Santa Clara Mission to San Francisco. Its owner, Don Secundini Robles, was of the pure old Castilian stock, and he and his wife. Donna Maria, were lord and lady for all the region round, and their house the center for all the gay rodeos and fandangos of the valley. Now the house is a ruin, Don Secundini dead, and Donna Maria, in poverty and alone, lives in the village of Mountain View. But their name passes on to fame among the Stanford students in connection with the Robles Rancheria, a large, low-lying mound of earth some quarter of a mile away from the old house, with that mysterious reputation attaching to it that always hovers around an Indian mound. It has indeed an artificial look, rising in the midst of the otherwise level valley; and the boys of the vicinity assured us that there were plenty of skeletons in it. The man who owned it said that when he first began to plow in that field he turned up human bones, and added, "You may guess I was scared." Indian mortars and pestles from this same heap were found in the possession of various neighbors, and the site altogether seemed promising for exploration. So, with the permission of the owner, and with such direction as could be given by a historian with an amateur interest in archæology, some Stanford students began to explore the site..."
As the love of life is generally acknowledged to be the strongest instinct of the human mind, how could we explain the voluntary death or suicide? This book presents works about the problem of suicide and factors influencing it.Contents : - A Study of Suicide- Suicide and the Environment- Suicide in Large Cities- Suicide and the Weather- Genius and Suicide...
The philology is the study of languages in written historical sources to know how languages or words develop, and establish their historical relatedness. "In the very beginnings of recorded history we find explanations of the diversity of tongues, and naturally such explanations resort to supernatural intervention. The "law of wills and causes," formulated by Comte, is exemplified here as in so many other cases. That law is, that when men do not know the natural causes of things, they simply attribute them to wills like their own; thus they obtain a theory which provisionally takes the place of science, and this theory is very generally theological..."
The Pythagoras's Theorem is one of the famous and earliest theorems widely used and learned at school. According to legend, Pythagoras was so happy when he discovered this theorem that he would have offered a sacrifice of oxen. Who was Pythagoras, the famous mathematician and Philosophy? This short book exposes the life and works of Pythagoras and the Pythagoreanism.