The development of sick-nursing is one of the most notable features of modern social life. This book presents the history of the modern nursing and its development by a pioneer nurse named Florence Nightingale.
Nursing is as old as the human species. Even among animals, such as they are at present, we find occasional sympathy with fellow-suffering, and meet with efforts for the purpose of relief. We cannot imagine that human beings, in ever so remote prehistoric times, should have lived together, or near each other, without mutual attempts at relief, when suffering or sick. But this is presumption only, not history. No book, no tradition refers to facts in regard to the subject until the times of ancient Hellas and its successor in civilization, ancient Rome. Antiquity yields but few proofs of systematic nursing.
The evolution of the sick-nurse is mainly due to three very diverse influences-religion, war and science - to name them in chronological order...
Prometheus is a hero of Grecian mythology who is considered as a friend of men, as stealing fire from heaven for their benefit. "With fire they could at least warm their bodies and cook their food," Prometheus thought, "and later they could make tools and build houses for themselves and enjoy some of the comforts of the gods." On account of various services rendered to men, he was chained by Zeus to a rock...
This book presents the stories of american pioneers distinguished in science: Benjamin Franklin; Joseph Henry; John Torrey; James Dwight Dana; Edward Drinker Cope; Spencer Fullerton Baird; John James Audubon ; Alexander von Humboldt; Louis Agassiz; Joseph Leidy...
This book presents the effects of tobacco upon smokers; its Physical, Mental and Social Influences. Effects on the Digestive Circulatory and Respiratory Organs; On the Muscular System, On the Senses, On the Voice, On the mind... On the Circulatory Organs. The circulation of the blood is impeded by this worse than fatal narcotic. It is worse than fatal, because of its fascination. The nutrient portions of the food have been traced to the heart through the thoracic duct, where begins what is called the circulatory process. On the Heart - This is the great propelling power of the blood and throws out the impure blood to be purified, and, receiving it back, throws it out again purified to the whole system, for its strength and growth. Now, if this organ does not have the proper materials to work upon, it will itself be injured and not do its work thoroughly. In some cases the Tobacco-user finds the pulsations of the heart slow, feeble and irregular, and in other cases rapid and violent.
The power of self-control is one of the great qualities that differentiate man from the lower animals. He is the only animal capable of a moral struggle or a moral conquest. Every step in the progress of the world has been a new "control." Self-control is at the root of all the virtues... "Any man may attain self-control if he only will."
Sea-Sickness symptoms are experienced by many persons when they are subjected to the pitching and rolling motion of a vessel at sea.
Plutarch was, perhaps, the first theorist on the subject. He thought that sea-sickness was caused by the smell of the salt-water; and, following him, men have propounded theory after theory, only to leave us of today with a large stock of theories, and but few good results to show for them.
This book deals with the cause of Sea-Sickness and the vertigo.
"In learning to walk we judge of the distances of the objects, which we approach, by the eye; and by observing their perpendicularity determine our own. This circumstance not having been attended to by the writers on vision, the disease called vertigo or dizziness has been little understood. When any person loses the power of muscular action, whether he is erect or in a sitting posture, he sinks down upon the ground; as is seen in fainting fits, and other instances of great debility. Hence it follows, that some exertion of muscular power is necessary to preserve our perpendicular attitude. This is performed by proportionally exerting the antagonist muscles of the trunk, neck, and limbs; and if at any time in our locomotions we find ourselves inclining to one side, we either restore our equilibrium by the efforts of the muscles on the other side, or by moving one of our feet extend the base, which we rest upon, to the new center of gravity..."
Claude Bernard is one of the greatest of all men of science" said a historian of Harvard University. His career is a most interesting and instructive chapter in the history of the progress of physiology and experimental medicine. It is difficult for one who has not followed closely the progress of science to appreciate the full merit of the original work accomplished by Claude Bernard, and the immense influence which he and his followers have exerted by the impulse they have given to the experimental and deductive method. This book deals with the history of the life, accomplishments and discoveries of this great scientist.
Charles Martel is generally considered as the Frankish Military Leader who defeated the Moslem army and stopped the great movement of Arab conquest in Europe. His victory during the battle of Tours (also called the battle of Poitiers) is described by the historians as the decisive event which preserved the European Civilization. According to E. Gibbon the victory of Charles Martel rescued the ancestors of Europeans, from the Islamic civilization. And the historian L. Von Ranke said : "the battle of Poitiers was the turning point of one of the most important epochs in the history of the world." Who really was Charles Martel? This book present the story of Charles Martel, the military leader and defender of Frankish kingdom.
Madagascar, that some called the Great Britain of Africa, is one of the largest islands in the world. It is said to have been discovered by Europeans in the year 1506. By the Portuguese it was called the island of St. Lawrence, either in honour of its discoverer, Lawrence Almeida, or, as stated by early writers, in accordance with a custom prevailing among them, in honour of the saint on whose day in the calendar it was first seen. The French, during the reign of Henry IV, called it Isle Dauphine. The island had, however, for a long period previously, been known to the Moors and Arabs, who have visited its western shores for the purpose of trade. By them it was called Serandah, and not Serandib, as stated by Rochon, which there is every reason to believe was the name they gave to Ceylon. The inhabitants of Europe had also been previously made acquainted with its existence by the accounts of Marco Paulo, whose travels were published in the close of the 13th century. This is the general history of Madagascar, the Great Island.
Jeanne d'Arc (Joan the Arc) is a national heroine of France who asserted that she had visions from God which instructed her to recover her homeland France from English domination. She led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years's War. "Since the writing of human history, Jeanne d'Arc is the only person, of either sex, who has ever held supreme command of the military forces of a nation at the age of seventeen"
The Natchez are a tribe of American Indians who lived in the area of the present town of Natchez in Mississippi. The Natchez were people inhabiting that part of America called Florida by the first discoverers. They came originally from Mexico, and closely resembled the Aztecs, both in appearance and habits. Possessing none of the roving disposition common to the savage, their houses, furniture, and domestic implements were comparatively comfortable and convenient. We are told that their houses were gathered together into towns, and resembled farm-houses in Spain, being surrounded with bake-houses, granaries, etc., showing a nation no longer in the hunter state, but attached to the soil, with all the corresponding effects of a life advanced a step toward civilization...
"There are about forty species of grapes in the world, more than half of which are found in North America. A statement of the difference between European and American grapes shows why American viticulturists are so eager to grow either purebreds from the foreign grape or hybrids with it... The methods of the past in domesticating the native grapes have been wholly empirical and extremely wasteful. Many have been called, but few chosen. But with the knowledge of breeding and with the experience of the past, domestication ought to proceed with greater certainty..." This book presents the history of American Grapes domestication and Wine-Making.
Who were the Franks? Anyone who wants to know the history of European nations, must read the history of the Franks. Beyond the Roman Empire, the foundation of medieval Europe also depends on the Franks whose empire evolved into the modern France and other European countries. This book, based on historical works, deals with the rise and development of the Franks, and their influence in the history of Europe.
Michael Faraday was one of the greatest British discoverers all over the world. Faraday is known for many scientific discoveries that are very useful in the world, such as : Faraday cage - Faraday constant - Faraday cup - Faraday's law of induction - Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Faraday rotator - Faraday wave - Faraday wheel. This book presents the story of the life, the accomplishments and discoveries of this great scientist and his influence in the world.
How to help the unemployed? This subject developed by Henry George is more relevant to our time when unemployment becomes a major problem. Henry George, famous for his book titled Progress and Poverty, was American political economist who developed a "tax reform" project and promoted economic philosophy based on the equal right of all men to the use of the earth. The economic value derived from land and natural resources should belong equally to all members of society. "Why should charity be offered the unemployed? It is not alms they ask. They are insulted and embittered and degraded by being forced to accept as paupers what they would gladly earn as workers. What they ask is not charity, but the opportunity to use their own labor in satisfying their own wants. Why can they not have that? It is their natural right. He who made food and clothing and shelter necessary to man's life has also given to man, in the power of labor, the means of maintaining that life; and when, without fault of their own, men cannot exert that power, there is somewhere a wrong of the same kind as denial of the right of property and denial of the right of life..."
For centuries the blind were regarded as objects of pity and as unfortunate beings. No interest had been manifested in the education of the blind. This book presents how evolved the situation of the Blinds and the development of their education. Who were the pioneers of this evolution? How was developed the Braille System used by people who are blind or visually impaired?
For a long period of years, a child who was born deaf or blind has been called a defective. The belief that the deaf and blind could not be educated was so universal that within the last century they were actually referred to as children of "silence," "solitude" and "darkness," "sorrow-stricken children of silence", the pitiable object of dismal despair." How has it evolved? This book deals with the history of the sign language and the evolution of the education of deaf-mute.
Clovis came to rule over a larger country than any Gaulish chief had ever done and it was a country which was worth governing. He called himself King of the Franks, but I think you had better emember him by the title which fits him best that of the First King of France.
The baptism of Clovis, which implied the general conversion of the Franks to Christianity, set the crown on a century of striking successes for the Western Church.
Who really was Clovis the founder of Frank Monarchy?
What is the origin of the rights of property and how it evolved? Why Rights of Property? "In the joint enterprise of making a living, human beings not only potentiate but they also stimulate one another. The power and the stimulus are often combined, just as some foods furnish at the same time nutrition and stimulation to the human body. Sometimes we may distinguish between the two elements. It is so in the case of property. Wealth is power. Property is a stimulant. In order to make this distinction clear, we draw another. We must explain the difference in meaning between wealth and property. This will not be a hard task. Property is ownership, and wealth is the thing owned. Wealth is a thing, property a right to it. Wealth is mine and thine, property mineness and thineness. True, we often confuse the terms, and speak of the thing itself as property; especially do we speak of a body of real estate as a piece of property."
What Makes the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer? Through this question, this book deals with the effect of capitalist competition on the social classes.
This book deals with the history of Centenarians and Lessons from their Habits.
"... as has been well said, "the harmonious development of the many-sided aspects of man is conducive to health and the prolongation of life," and that there need be no fear of entering heartily and actively, and with full interest and energy, into the assigned work of life, physical or mental. The body is made, not for ease and sloth, but for labor and play, for work and enjoyment, better still for enjoyment of work. Work, enjoyed as it should be, promotes health in body, and especially if stimulated by other motives than personal ambition and gain, engenders that cheerful, placid frame of mind which is one of the adjuncts of centenarianism..."
Alaska is the largest state of the United States of America; occupying the extreme northwestern part of North America and the adjacent islands. In the dialect of the natives first encountered by the Russian explorers, the peninsula was called Al-áy-es-ka, the name having become changed through Alaksa and Alashka to its present form, from which last is derived the general territorial designation Alaska, which Dall asserts to be an English corruption never used by the Russians...
The first definite knowledge of Alaska was acquired in 1741 through the expedition under Vitus Bering, a Danish in the Russian service, who, in that year, sailed from Okhoysk as far as 58° 30' N. latitude. In 1762 Andreian Tolstykh, after a sojourn of three years in these regions, returned to Russia, and on his representation of the commercial importance of Alaska Catherine II sent an expedition to foster trade and colonization. Rival companies began to dispute the territory, but in 1780, two traders, Grigor Shilikof and Ivan Golikof, relying on home influence, chiefly that of Rezanof, Chamberlain to the Emperor, formed the Russian-American Fur company, the history of which is the history of Muscovite domination of Alaska from 1780 until the sale of the territory to the united States in 1867...
This book deals with the story of the Maya : their Civilization, Customs and Legends.
The ancient Maya emerged probably during the first or second century of the Christian Era. In general it may be said that the Maya culture occupied the peninsula of Yucatan, portions of the states of Tabasco and Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, and the northern part of Honduras. That branch of the Mayas who called themselves the Itzas occupied the southern portion of Yucatan and the greater part, of what is now the Department of Peten in Guatemala.
Based on the studies of great authors, this book deals with the origin of right or left handedness.
"The question "why are we right or left handed?" has exercised the speculative ingenuity of many men. It has come to the front anew in recent years in view of the advances made in the general physiology of the nervous system; and certainly we are now in a better position to set the problem intelligently and to hope for its solution..."